International Social Policy

Below you will find explanations of terms related to WifOR's International Social Policy publications.
The following blog post refers:

  • #ICare campaign: For a (gender) just society
  • D&I drives success for companies in today's labor market



    Diversity is the variety of social demographics represented within a company and its structural levels. These social demographics can include characteristics such as gender, nationality, sex, age and sexual orientation.

    Equal Pay Day


    Equal Pay Day is the day up to or from which women would work without pay. It thus symbolically marks the pay gap between men and women and is celebrated on different days in different countries.


    Equity is the fair and just treatment of all people. Specifically, gender equity refers to the distribution of responsibilities and advantageous outcomes between men, women, and all genders. Tackling discrimination and the inequalities limiting fair access to opportunities is at the heart of equity. 



    Inclusion refers to the satisfaction, participation and sense of belonging experienced by employees in a company. Inclusion factors include, among others, openness of communication, contact with employees in higher decision-making positions, and trust.


    Intersectionality describes the overlapping of social categorizations when applied to a given individual or group, often resulting in discrimination or disadvantage. These social categorizations can include gender, race, age or sexuality.

    Gender Care Gap

    The term Gender Care Gap was developed as part of the German government's second Equality Report to make another dimension of gender inequality visible.

    Gender Pay Gap

    The Gender Pay Gap is the average gross hourly earnings (excluding special payments) of women and men in relation to the gross hourly earnings of men. Although the gender pay gap has narrowed slightly since 2015, women still earn an average of 18% less per hour than men in 2020 (unadjusted GPG).

    Informal reproduction sectors

    Informal reproduction sectors represent a part of non-market activities and include household production and care work.

    International World Women's Day


    The International World Women's Day is celebrated on March 8 and marks a call to action for accelerating women's rights and the demand for gender equality and increasing awareness about women's equality. The international women's day has been celebrated since 1911.

    Non-market activities

    Non-market activities include volunteering, moonlighting, household production, and care work.

    Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)


    In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly agreed on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These outline a new global agenda with a total of 17 goals to transform the world. Among other things, they aim to reduce hunger and poverty, improve global health, enable equality, and protect the planet. High-quality education for children and young people worldwide plays a central role in the SDGs.

    Value Balancing Alliance (VBA)

    The Value Balancing Alliance (VBA) is an association of multinational companies that was formed with the aim of creating and standardizing a way to measure and compare the value of companies' contributions to society, the economy, and the environment. The resulting metrics are values that have not previously been reflected in a company's balance sheet. The special feature of the VBA is that it translates environmental and social impacts into comparable financial data, i.e. monetary values.